By Michael Hutchins
V. 1. reduce metazoans and lesser deuterostomes / Neil Schlager, editor -- v. 2. Protostomes / Neil Schlager, editor -- v. three. bugs / Neil Schlager, editor -- v. 4-5. Fishes I-II / Neil Schlager -- v. 6. Amphibians / Neil Schlager, editor -- Reptiles / Neil Schlager, editor -- v. 8-11. Birds I-IV / Donna Olendorf, venture editor -- v. 12-16. Mammals I-V -- v. 17. Cumulative index.; ''This is a revised and up-to-date version of 1 of the main authoritative and complete assets at the world's animals. just like the 1st version written by way of famous zoologist Bernard Grzimek and released in 1972, the second one version covers all kinds of animals in geographic parts world wide. It contains top of the range photos and illustrations and a finished index to all volumes.''--''The best 20 Reference Titles of the Year,'' American Libraries, could 2004
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Additional info for Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia. Protostomes
For example, male squids (phylum Mollusca) use a modified arm to place a loaded spermatophore inside the mantle cavity of a female. Some hermaphroditic leeches (phylum Annelida) actually spear their mating partner through the skin with a dartlike spermatophore, which slowly injects the sperm through the body wall following copulation. In almost all cases, whether by sperm or spermatophore transfer, copulation is followed by internal fertilization, and at least some degree of internal development.
The gonads are generally tubular throughout the phylum, but the tubes are generally regionally modified to perform a variety of sophisticated functions. Sperm and oocytes typically develop inside complex follicles from which they derive materials prior to fertilization, which is typically internal in all environments. Cleavage may be holoblastic, as in most spiders, millipedes, and crustaceans. Insects and some other groups, however, have such large yolk reserves that holoblastic cleavage is impossible, and these exhibit superficial cleavage around the central yolk mass.
Their lifestyles, origins and diversity all have underlying structures and functions that depend on the interactions between abiotic (nonliving) and biotic (living) components of the environment both past and present. From the fossil record, protostomes first appeared about 600 million years ago, although researchers believe that many of the early members of this group became extinct. Those few that did survive, however, evolved and radiated, or diversified, into the variety of protostomes that biologists recognize today.