By Michael Hutchins
Publication by way of Hutchins, Michael
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Extra resources for Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia: Lower Metazoans and Lesser Deuterostomes
J. Brusca. Invertebrates. 2nd ed. , 2003. Garstang, W. ” Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science 72 (1928): 51–187. Jefferies, R. P. S. The Ancestry of the Vertebrates. London: British Museum (Natural History), 1986. Haeckel, E. ” Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science 14 (1866): 142–165, 223–247. Nielsen, C. Animal Evolution. Interrelationships of the Living Phyla. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001. Tyler, S. ” In Interrelationships of the Platyhelminthes, edited by D. T. J.
In this way, germ cells become genetically unique while they are still in the parent animal, long before they become fully formed sperm or oocytes, and even longer before they fuse with gametes from another parent. At the later point of gamete fusion, the recombined genes in the chromosomes from two parents will fertilize each other to produce new chromosome combinations. Thus, the genetic recombination that takes place during meiosis, combined with the reaggregation of the chromosomes that occurs during fertilization, results in the distinctive offspring that characterize most animals.
The size of hydroids is usually inversely related to the speed of water movement; large specimens are found in calm water and smaller specimens in rougher water. 6 in (50 cm) in deeper water with bidirectional currents. Planar (flat) forms such as A. pluma, Plumularia setacea, and Eudendrium rameum are most abundant where the current tends to flow in one direction, while radial or arborescent (treelike) forms such as Lytocarpia myriophyllum, Nemertesia antenna, and E. racemosum flourish in bi- or multidirectional currents.