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By Marc-Antoine Jullien

For this publication R. R. Palmer has translated choices from the ample writings of the flexible French political determine and author Marc-Antoine Jullien, weaving them along with his personal large observation into an soaking up narrative of Jullien's lifestyles and instances. Jullien's hopes and fears for the "progress of humanity" have been commonplace of a few of the French bourgeoisie during this turbulent interval. His lifestyles coincided with the full period of revolution in Europe and the Americas from 1775 to 1848: he used to be born within the yr whilst armed uprising opposed to Britain all started in the United States, he witnessed the autumn of the Bastille as a schoolboy in Paris, joined the Jacobin membership, took half within the Reign of Terror, encouraged democracy, placed his hopes in Napoleon Bonaparte, grew to become opposed to him, after which welcomed his go back from Elba. less than the restored Bourbons, he grew to become an outspoken liberal, had a good time within the revolution of 1830, had doubts concerning the July monarchy, welcomed the revolution of 1848, and died a number of weeks earlier than the election of Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte as president of the second one Republic.

Drawn from books, pamphlets, reviews, letters, ebook reports, journal articles, poems, and personal notes and memoranda, Jullien's reviews are supplemented the following via letters that his mom wrote throughout the early years of the French Revolution and via articles by way of Jullien's collaborators within the Revue Encyclopédique. In Palmer's expert palms, those chosen fabrics from a now forgotten existence vividly painting France's transition from progressive republicanism and the fear throughout the Napoleonic years to the extra placid liberalism of the 19th century.

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Although he fails to mention the prime minister, William Pitt, who was attempting to keep England out of war, and although his picture of George III as a principal warmonger only reflects an inflamed republican ideology, his portrayal of the division of opinion in England was by no means false. Gillray’s cartoons were in fact presenting the French as bloodthirsty cannibals, Edmund Burke and others were urging the need of war against the Revolution, and others in all social classes preferred to remain neutral.

Fanatics” were those Catholics who most firmly resisted interference with their religion. “Federalists” were those, usually of the upper strata in the provincial cities, who might be republicans but who objected to the radicalism of Paris and the centralization of power under the Committee of Public Safety; they were accused of wanting to decentralize or “federate” and hence weaken the country in time of war. In late August the British fleet occupied the Mediterranean port of Toulon in collusion with royalists in that city.

Muscadin” (the word normally meant a dandy or fop) was a term used by revolutionaries in 1793–1794 to designate their opponents. “Fanatics” were those Catholics who most firmly resisted interference with their religion. “Federalists” were those, usually of the upper strata in the provincial cities, who might be republicans but who objected to the radicalism of Paris and the centralization of power under the Committee of Public Safety; they were accused of wanting to decentralize or “federate” and hence weaken the country in time of war.

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