By Birgitta Englund Dimitrova, Birgitta Englund Dimitrova
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Additional resources for Expertise And Explicitation in the Translation Process (Benjamins Translation Library : Est)
A distinction in storage proposed early on was between individuals with compound, coordinate and subordinate bilingualism (Weinreich 1953; Ervin & Osgood 1954), depending on the acquisition history of their L1 and L2. More recent research gives partially contrary evidence on the issue of storage: Altarriba (1992) and Kroll and Sholl (1992) thus find, in experiments with translation, that the bilingual individual stores linguistically independent concepts in a common conceptual store, with connections to two separate, language-dependent lexical systems; whereas de Groot (1993) concludes that the representation of the two languages is of a mixed type, so that concrete concepts tend to be stored in a common system, whereas abstract concepts are stored in separate systems.
The discipline of translation studies has been growing steadily since the 1950s–60s, and with more recent accelerated growth, both as an academic discipline with research, and as a professional area for which various new training programs have been set up. , Chesterman 1989; Fawcett 1997; Gentzler 1993/2001; Hermans 1999; Koller 1979/1992; Munday 2001; Nord 1997; Venuti 2000). The present study makes use of a descriptive perspective (cf. Holmes 1972; Toury 1995), and is focused on the translation process of the translator.
The relative allocation of time for the phases is a consequence of how the main cognitive process components of the task are distributed and applied throughout the task. For instance, some translators do extensive reserach already during the first phase, while others may start translating more or less right away and postpone some of the research even to the third phase. There are also differences in the extent to which problems are solved during the second phase, or left for the last phase, as well as what aspects are focused upon in the second phase: whether to achieve first and foremost an idiomatic TL text, or to make sure that the TT is accurate and complete, dealing with pragmatics and stylistics in the third phase.