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By Barry H. Kantowitz

Knowing PSYCHOLOGY learn, 9th variation, takes an example-based method of the basics of analysis technique. geared up by means of topic--such as study in human components, studying, pondering, and challenge solving--the textual content is helping you attach the ideas of sound method with their functional purposes. as the authors use dozens of conscientiously chosen real-world examples, you will discover for your self the problems and difficulties which can ensue in carrying out study. extra importantly, you could increase a feeling of ways to count on and regulate for difficulties on your personal examine.

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Read this article: Skinner, B. F. (1956). A case history in scientific method. American Psychologist, 11, 221–233. Analyze Skinner’s views from the standpoint of the issues discussed in this chapter. WEB CONNECTIONS Explore the step-by-step presentation of “What is Science? org CHAPTER 2 RESEARCH TECHNIQUES: OBSERVATION AND CORRELATION NATURALI STIC OBSERVATION What Do We Observe? Reactivity The Case Study Survey Research Advantages and Disadvantages of Naturalistic Observations THE RELATIONAL APPROACH Contingency Research Correlational Research The Correlation Coefficient Complex Correlational Procedures Cause: A Note SUMM ARY KEY TERMS DIS CUSSI ON QUESTIONS WE B CONNECTIONS Scientific observation does not differ from everyday observation by being infallible although it is quantitatively less fallible than ordinary observation.

In this context, the term a priori refers to something that is believed without prior study or examination. Propositions that seem reasonable are believed. This is an extension of the method of authority. However, there is no one particular authority being followed blindly in this method. The general cultural outlook is what seems to fix belief a priori. People once believed the world was flat, and it did seem reasonable to suppose that the sun revolved around the earth as does the moon. Indeed, the world does look flat if you are not in a spacecraft.

Miller (1959) has explained how a single intervening variable, thirst, organizes experimental results efficiently. 3 One Set of Variables. pressing. The dependent variable is obtained by placing a rat into a small chamber where it can press a bar to obtain drinking water. The experimenter observes the rate (how many presses per minute) at which the rat presses the bar to get water. The direct relationship uses only one arrow to link hours of deprivation to rate of bar pressing. After doing the experiment, we could build a mathematical formula that directly relates hours of deprivation to rate of bar pressing.

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