By Dmitri N. Fedorenko, Sergei Golovatch
The current monograph is a hugely unique and thorough test at revising the wing constitution of the beetles, with detailed emphasis positioned not just at the venation styles saw, but in addition on folding. mixed, all of those styles are severely re-evaluated to supply new, hugely unorthodox insights in beetle evolution. The paintings is usually abundantly illustrated by means of unique drawings exhibiting the entire worthy info of beetle wing constitution, together with form, venation, sclerotization and folding styles. the current monograph is essential for college kids in beetle taxonomy, evolution and palaeontology. Dr. Dmitri Fedorenko, born 1962, is Senior Scientist on the Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow. His major pursuits lie within the taxonomy, ecology, geography and evolution of the beetles, the ground-beetles specifically. he's the writer of greater than forty clinical papers, together with the monograph "Reclassification of worldwide Dyschiriini, with a revision of the Palearctic fauna (Coleoptera, Carabidae)", Moscow-Sofia-St. Petersburg: Pensoft Publishers, 1996.
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Additional info for Evolution of the Beetle Hind Wing, With Special Reference to Folding (Insecta, Coleoptera)
A primitive jugal lobe is more or less evenly rounded and broad. The maximum wing width varies in position lengthwise, on the average being situated at or before midway. A common trend in the evolution of the above wing type is very weakly expressed. It manifests itself in transforming a triangular contour into a more or less oval one as the adult body decreases in size. As a result, the clavus and jugum become reduced in whole or in part. More often, this alteration is mediated or accompanied by an increasingly deep jugal incision, this tendency being general for beetle wings in the course of body miniaturization.
This difference resulted from the veins changing in position, which came chiefly out of the anals turning with their distal sections laterad (morphologically, anteriad) and the apices drifting along the elytral suture caudad (morphologically, distad). Some longitudinal veins, including a greater part of the apical branches of RP+MA and MP, should have been reduced in the course of this alteration. Seven unbranched veins have only survived. These correspond to uneven intervals on the elytron of the striated type.
These “cross-veins” can be interpreted ambiguously, either as free bases of ScA branches, ScA1+2 and ScA3+4, or one vein as ScA and the other as a true cross-vein. Depending on the hypothesis selected, either both veins, the costa and the subcosta, or only one of them will be complex distal to h. To simplify veinal symbols, I recognize C+ScA as a complex vein braced by h with a simple subcosta (ScP). g. Carabitae, Cicindelitae). Usually, ScP disappears before the apical end of the pterostigma, as in most Adephaga, or much more proximally, either within or proximal to the radial cell, as in Archostemata or Polyphaga.