By F.B. de Walle, M. Nikolopoulou-Tamvakli, W.J. Heinen
This learn investigates the level of the pollutants of the Mediterranean Sea with appreciate to the 4 bordering EC international locations - spain, France, Italy, and Greece. The environmental pressures and financial affects are tested and the institutional/legal framework is defined including all of the worthy environmental bills. The e-book is written in the sort of method that separate chapters are dedicated to all of the 4 international locations, after an preliminary part summarizing the main commonalities. those chapters are geared up in parallel codecs in order that it's attainable to envision an analogous subject nation by means of nation. solid references are supplied for the reader who's no longer accustomed to the topic of Mediterranean toxins. For experts, the ebook offers an invaluable evaluation of adjoining fields except their very own speciality: for policymakers, the chapters supply adequate foundations for decision-making: for the funding planner and banks, it presents finances and funding wishes; and for the non-public quarter, it supplies an perception into the chances for company purposes of environmental applied sciences. 4 experts - Prof. V. Silano (Italy), Dr. M. Vassilopoulos (Greece), Dr. L.A. Romafia (France), and Mr. A. Estevan (Spain- contributed sustantially via comparing the required info from nationwide files on environmental rules and techniques. The booklet used to be constructed at the foundation of an built-in environmental learn financed by means of the eu funding financial institution, to which we want to specific our honest thanks.
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The most eutrophic area is the northwest Adriatic. Red tides and algal blooms occurred in the Adriatic Sea more frequently after the first major red tide of 1969. A major bloom in September 1978 resulted in a huge fish kill in which thousands of tons of dead molluscs and collected along the coastal area of Ravenna. fish were An extensive bloom in June 1977 of chloroflagellate Chattonella sp. 10 7 cells/l resulted from a high Po flow (up to 8,000 m3 / sec) sition of mortality and overenrichment.
Intensive erosion has been observed near the mouths of the rivers due to a diminished supply of fluvial sediments to the sea (retained behind river dams). The loss of woodland (mainly due to forest fires) sidence on sloping coastlines and land sub- (geological or induced by excessive groundwater pumping) are also damaging the coastal strip. The marine water quality is greatly affected by pollutants from the Po. Significant concentrations of heavy metals near the Po mouth were found each year (between 1975 and 1980) due to industrial discharges.
The first one, with a width of 15 kilometers, separates the Mediterranean from the Atlantic Ocean and makes sea; it an almost enclosed the second divides it into a western and an eastern basin; the third separates it from the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea. 2). The summer surface currents show counterclockwise patterns with the major cyclonic gyres, Cyrenaican, Tyrrhenian and Algerian-Provencial, due to the prevailing southeasterly winds. 2). The input of pollutants into Mediterranean waters has a major impact because this sea is semi-enclosed.