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By Cedric Gillott (auth.)

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8). In this scheme the hypothetical ancestral group were "lobopod" annelids that had lobelike outgrowths of the body wall serving as legs. Following chitinization of the cuticle and loss of all except one pair of tentacles (which formed the antennae), the lobopods gave rise to the Protonychophora. From the protonychophorans developed, on the one hand, the Onychophora and, on the other, the Protarthropoda in which the cuticle became sclerotized and thickened. Such organisms lived in shallow water near the shore or in the littoral zone.

4. POlYNEUROUS COSTANEUROUS Primary types of crossvenation. [After K. G. A. Hamilton, 1972, The insect wing, Part IV, 1. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 45:295-308. ] 33 INSECT DIVERSITY 34 CHAPTER 2 preserved, * especially from the Devonian and Lower Carboniferous periods during which a great adaptive radiation of insects occurred. By the Permian period, from which many more fossils are available, almost all of the modem orders had been established. Misidentification of fossils and misinterpretation of structures by early paleontologists led to their drawing incorrect conclusions about the phylogeny of certain groups and the construction of rather confusing nomenclature.

However, there are several major difficulties in accepting it. First, there is a lack of "centipedelike" (proto mandibulate) fossils in the Cambrian period. The first such fossils do not appear until the Upper Silurian and Devonian periods, and these are clearly myriapodan. Second, the theory implies a unity of all mandibulate arthropods based on a single character and this has proven to be a major point of contention. 2), especially, has argued strongly that the mandible has evolved convergently in Crustacea and the Myriapoda-Hexapoda line.

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