By Dev Maulik
Elevated and up-to-date variation highlighting present criteria and breakthroughs within the know-how of Doppler ultrasound contains most recent advances in 3D and colour doppler and 4D fetal echocardiography comprises greater than 500 illustrations, together with greater than a hundred and fifty in colour
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Extra info for Doppler Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology
70 ´ 105, respectively. 8 ´ 105). The significance of acoustic impedance lies in the fact that it is the impedance inhomogeneities in tissues that give rise to echoes, which form the basis for ultrasonic imaging and Doppler velocimetry. The boundary between adjacent media with differing acoustic impedance values is called an acoustic interface. The characteristics of sound transmission change at the interface. Such changes include reflection and refraction. The amplitude of reflection is directly proportional to the magnitude of impedance difference at the interface.
Obviously, the maximum depth at which PW Doppler measurement can be performed without range confusion is limited by the interpulse interval. This relation is shown in the following equation: Dmax c Á Tp =2 where Dmax indicates the maximum depth of the target vessel, c is the velocity of sound in soft tissue, and Tp is the interpulse interval. As the pulse repetition frequency (fpr) is the reciprocal of the interpulse interval, the equation can be expressed as: Dmax c=2fpr The pulse repetition frequency also determines the maximum allowable Doppler frequency shift and therefore the blood flow velocity that can be measured without producing aliasing.
Obviously, one must balance these contrary effects when selecting the optimal frequency for a specific application. For example, for most fetal Doppler insonations via the maternal abdomen, transducers with a frequency range of 2±4 MHz are commonly used to reach the deep-lying vascular targets in the fetus. , 5 MHz) increases the Doppler sensitivity without significant attenuation of the beam. When a propagating ultrasonic wave encounters an acoustic interface, reflection occurs. Scattering takes a 15 Chapter 2 Physical Principles of Doppler Ultrasonography place when the size of the interface is smaller than the incident sound wavelength.