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This clearly demonstrates the need for massive and sustained support for science, agricultural research, education and training, and advice in Africa. 2 Aims and problems of agricultural policy in developing countries In all developing countries in which a high proportion of the jobs are in agriculture, there are very few opportunities for those who wish to switch from agriculture to another sector of the economy. 5%, which would 26 Implications of rapid population growth for agricultural policy be a very high figure, only 1% of the rise would be accounted for by people switching to the industrial and service sectors.

There are no insurmountable barriers to acquiring new knowledge about nature and natural laws. However, supplies of energy, at least in the form of fossil fuels, are finite and this presents a problem, not just as regards producing food, but to the whole human race. N e w sources of energy will have to be found, so investment in energy secures and expands the basis of food production. Also, there is no doubt that as agricultural productivity increases, so too does the energy input per worker and per unit of area.

The concentration of the human species as a consumer of resources into an extremely short period of the Earth's history has many as yet unrecognized implications for the entire ecological system. However, as well as investigating and elucidating long-term relationships between essential use of resources and expanding populations in specific regions, there are the immediate priorities to be dealt with. It is essential to ensure that everyone has enough to eat. Faced with the continuing population growth in the developing countries, the politicians have much less room for manoeuvre in restricting the consumption of resources than the current debate in the industrialized countries would appear to suggest (Hahlbrock 1990).

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