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In contrast, the political economy paradigm is concerned with the impact of planning on the structure of society as a whole. Evidently, my work has been undertaken in the belief that questions internal to the process of planning do form a valid field of study. A number of arguments can be put forward in support of the emphasis on procedural questions. First, it is possible to argue that whatever the political system, there will always be procedural and organisational problems to overcome. In socialist as in capitalist states, in federal as in central administrations, the problems of uncertainty about the future, information overload, and of relating knowledge to action are characteristic of organisational behaviour and present similar procedural difficulties.

Local Variations, Organized Collective Action and Urban Class-Consciousness The very differences in local configurations, which give rise to different cases and therefore the allocation of different amounts of national resources, inhibit the establishment of organized collective responses to the allocative process across a wider area. While one local bureaucracy may have made an effective claim for more resources for local schools in the light of its demographic structure, a neighbouring authority might have less good schools but better health provision.

In comparing the two approaches Naschold suggests that the decision-making paradigm suffers from two major shortcomings. First, by emphasising rationality in planning the decision-making theorists assume a fundamental consensus of interest—or, if conflict is acknowledged, it is assumed to be capable of resolution through Towards a Combined Paradigm of Planning Theory? 35 rational decision-making. Second, this position limits the concern of planners to the production of plans and the organisation of the planning process.

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