By Isabel Stabile, Tim Chard, Gedis Grudzinskas
This article presents a brief connection with all vital evidence within the scientific sciences for applicants aiming at a postgraduate qualification in obstetrics and gynaecology, together with these applicants learning for the MRCOG half II exam. the knowledge is gifted in a concise demeanour and covers all crucial points of the topic. it's going to even be of worth to clinicians as a short guide.
This quantity will function a precious better half to the hugely winning uncomplicated Sciences for Obstetrics and Gynaecology via Chard and Lilford, now in its 4th variation.
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One of many mysteries of mammalian replica is the physiologic approach that determines the size of gestation. the right kind timing of start guarantees that the younger person is satisfactorily built to outlive and adapt within the extrauterine setting, and that the mummy is able to supply nutrients and safety to the infant.
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3. Invasive procedures for prenatal diagnosis continued on next page 2. Risks higher in non-immune hydrops 3. 2%-3% risk of cord haematoma, haemorrhage, premature delivery, bradycardia, fetal death 1. Needs skilled operator 2. Long-term culture takes 7-10 days 3. Risks of sac perforation, bleeding, infection, isoimmunisation and limb/facial abnormalities (before 10 weeks) 4. 2% karyotype discordance rate (maternal contamination and mosaicism) but false negatives very rare with long-term culture 5.
Survival is now almost complete if the time-lapse from the preceding pregnancy is less than four months (or six months from molar pregnancy) compared with 50% survival when the interval is 13-24 months. Patients who develop brain metastases while on chemotherapy have the worst prognosis (6% survival rate). Chapter 8 Congenital Abnormalities Serious congenital abnormalities occur in 2% oflive births, 30% of stillbirths and 18% of first week neonatal deaths accounting for 25% of perinatal deaths.
Limb reduction defects are associated with CVS at < 10 weeks gestation ~ ~ ~. f ~ i Genetic counselling and CVS (TI) or fetal blood sampling (T2I3) for beta globin gene probe analysis; offer TOP if positive Genetic counselling and CVS (TI) or fetal blood sampling (T2I3) for thalassaemia gene proble analysis; offer TOP if positive If both HbS carriers If both thalassaemia trait First trimester First trimester First trimester CF gene probe Haemoglobin electrophoresis in both partners at booking Haemoglobin electrophoresis in both partners at booking Offer TOP after counselling TOP = termination of pregnancy; CVS = chorion villus sampling; AFP = a1phafetoprotein; MOM = multiples of the median.