By Ilene Feinman
In the U.S., the query of ladies within the armed companies has been constantly and hotly debated. between feminists, essentially differing perspectives of ladies within the army have built. Feminist antimilitarists let us know that militarism and patriarchy have jointly pressed girls into moment type citizenship. in the meantime, feminist infantrymen and their advocates regard martial carrier as women's correct and accountability and the price ticket to top quality citizenship.
Citizenship Rites investigates what's at stake for ladies in those debates. Exploring the views of either feminist antimilitarists and feminist squaddies, Ilene Feinman situates the present wrestle controversy in the context of the ocean switch in usa politics because the 1970s-from period debates over drafting ladies to contemporary representations of army ladies equivalent to the movie GI Jane. Drawing on congressional testimony, proceedings, feminist and antiracist political discourse, and antimilitarist activism, Feinman addresses our urgent want for an research of women's expanding inclusion within the military whereas supplying a provocative research of what this altering function ability for ladies and society alike.
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Additional resources for Citizenship Rites: Feminist Soldiers and Feminist Antimilitarists
During the Gulf War I was teaching as assistant in a course entitled “Gender and Politics,” with Sonia Alvarez and Gwendolyn Mink, and I was also teaching nonviolence preparations with the Santa Cruz Nonviolence Preparer’s Collective. The former was planned and convened before the Gulf War began. The latter was a scheduled series in early response to the war’s build-up, beginning in August 1990. In both of these contexts, I was struck by the ways that the practices and presumptions of feminist nonviolence and the histories of martial citizenship could not | 16 | Feminist Antimilitarism/Feminist Egalitarian Militarism account for women’s explosive presence in the Gulf War.
These images of women as soldiers, the contradictions embedded in the images, and the experiences of women soldiers (including the post-war revelations about women soldiers being raped by male compatriots and being prisoners of war) sent | 17 | Feminist Antimilitarism/Feminist Egalitarian Militarism traditional notions of martial citizenry and female pacifism and innocence reeling. S. congressional battles raged over women’s fitness for combat duty and antiwar demonstrations were thickly peopled with feminist antimilitarists and their analyses.
This merger is our challenge. We are saying that feminism is crucial to pacifism, for we must dismantle the mental weaponry as well as the military. For us, nonviolence is a logical extension of feminism. To call ourselves feminist pacifists is to use neither as an adjective, but to integrate both. We are talking about a philosophy of its own. 40 The issues which became the focus for feminist antimilitarists included a far-reaching analysis of the dynamics of patriarchal oppression, in contrast to earlier (and ongoing) pacifist movements, in that feminist antimilitarists both identified and opposed what they articulated as the masculinist construction of militarism.