By Chaofen Sun
Chinese language is spoken through extra humans than the other language on the planet, and has a wealthy social, cultural and historic historical past. this can be a complete advisor to the linguistic constitution of chinese language, offering an available advent to every of the main components. It describes the basics of its writing method, its pronunciation and tonal sound method, its morphology (how phrases are structured), and its syntax (how sentences are shaped) - in addition to its old improvement, and the various ways that it interacts with different languages. surroundings the dialogue of all elements of chinese language firmly in the context of the language in use, chinese language: A Linguistic creation may be of serious gain to newcomers wishing to increase their wisdom and competence within the language, and their academics. it is going to even be an invaluable start line for college students of linguistics starting paintings at the constitution of this significant international language.
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Extra info for Chinese: A Linguistic Introduction
D`ı-y¯ı y¯ı-j˘ıu-l`ıu-l´ıng y´ı-ti`ao Ordinal-one 1–9–6–0 one-jump “the first” “1960” “a jump” b. 2). 2) a. b`u shu¯o b`u l´ai b`u xi˘ang not say not come not think “do not say” “do not come” “do not want” b. b`u q`u → b´u q`u not go “do not go” However, the most well-known, as well as most complicated, tone-sandhi phenomenon in standard Chinese involves the consecutive third-tone syllables, (214). 3). 3) l˘ı-p˘ın → l´ı-p˘ın 33 23 rite-goods “gift” shu˘ı-gu˘o → shu´ı-gu˘o 3 3 2 3 water-fruit “fruit” Furthermore, the application of the third tone-sandhi rule in standard Chinese goes beyond the word-level examples and is related to a number of factors such as the length of a word, the syntactic relationship between the contiguous third-tone syllables, the speed of speech, and the order of application.
This book divides Chinese syllables, represented by characters into various rhyming categories, according to their tonal qualities. Rhyme books like Qi`ey`un also explained the meanings and formation of the characters, thus functioning 18 Chinese: A Linguistic Introduction Changan Luoyang Han Dynasty Map 3 The Han Dynasty (206 BCE–CE 220) as dictionaries that could be used by scholars from different regions of the empire. 5 Early modern Chinese (960 to 1900) After the fall of the Tang dynasty in CE 907, with the exception of the 160 years of the Northern Song dynasty and the 280 years of the Ming dynasty, the vast area north of the Yangtze River, or the former central states, was ruled by Altaic speakers for more than 500 years.
As a result the language spoken there became very similar to that of the common language spoken in central China. It was also during the was Sui dynasty that an imperial examination system known as k¯ej˘u established to recruit government officials from among the brightest young scholars in the country. In this kind of examination, which was practiced for more than a millennium until the beginning of the last century, a testtaker had to demonstrate his ability to compose poems by following the strictly regulated rhyming schemes extremely popular among men of letters in Sui and Tang times.