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By Colin Mackerras

China's fifty-five formally regarded ethnic minorities shape approximately eight% of the chinese language inhabitants, with over a hundred million humans, and occupy over 60% of China's territory. they're very various, and the measure of modernisation between them varies significantly. This e-book examines the present nation of China's ethnic minorities at a time whilst ethnic affairs and globalisation are key forces affecting the modern global. It considers the fields of coverage, economic climate, society and diplomacy, together with the effect of globalisation and outdoors impacts.

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Population issues in Tibet and among the Tibetans have been clouded with controversy, with accusations including forced birth control being levelled against the Chinese authorities. These have been discredited in a highly scholarly study (Yan 2000: 11–36), and there seems little reason to doubt that during the 1980s the Tibetans and other minorities of the TAR were generally exempt from the onechild-per-couple policy, which prevailed among the Han almost everywhere in China from the beginning of the 1980s.

Historical background 27 Yet at both CCP and state level, policy was to increase minority representation in those bodies exercising influence. Success in implementing this policy during the 1980s was mixed. 7 per cent of the total of just over 49 million. 5 per cent (Mackerras 1994: 157). In terms of total numbers of cadres, however, the figures show a distinct rise. 06 million in 1990 (Sautman 1998: 116). It is to be expected that the ethnic groups vary from one another in the representation of cadres.

In 1980, progress towards a new policy gathered momentum. There were several signs of this, one of them specifically concerning Tibet and discussed below in the relevant section. What they all had in common was a thrust towards a much better deal for minorities. In March the highest-ranking member of a minority published an article in the CCP’s principal ideological journal. The author was Ulanhu (1906–1988), a Mongolian revolutionary of long standing who had joined the CCP as early as 1925 and become a member of that extremely powerful CCP body the Politburo in 1977, in other words somebody who could hardly be ignored.

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