By Hung N. Winn, Kevin Dellsperger
One of many newly rising topics in scientific perform is the concept that of 'gender particular' drugs - the conclusion that the pathogenesis, etiology and development of affliction usually differs among the sexes. In a few cases, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are recognized, in others, they continue to be the focal point of hypothesis. in lots of circumstances, the impression of disorder and the choices for administration have better value within the lady while those components are regarding reproductive health and wellbeing and the health of the ladies who're, or desire to be, bearing kids. heart problems is of singular value during this context, and this authoritative new textual content offers a finished synthesis of our present wisdom within the sector. featuring ideas for healing recommendations that deal with the detailed concerns that follow in ladies sufferers, similar to fertility and hormone alternative treatment, heart problems in girls additionally presents an replace on study findings that may impression scientific perform
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Extra resources for Cardiovascular Disease in Women
56 BMI, body mass index; RR, relative risk; CAD, coronary heart disease. 5 cm). 13 Obesity is associated with elevated Creactive protein, particularly in women. Hypertension Hypertension has been correlated with the increased risk of stroke and IHD in women. 14 Reduction in hypertension substantially affects the incidence of IHD in men and women. Clinical trials for antihypertensive therapies have not shown any gender differences in blood pressure response and outcomes so far. Smoking Smoking predisposes to accelerated atherosclerosis and vascular thrombosis.
They increase cardiac output and vascular resistance. 18 COARCTATION OF THE AORTA Coarctation of the aorta accounts for about 6–8% of all congenital heart defects. 24,25 Pathophysiology Coarctation of the aorta may be due to the underdevelopment of the aorta or due to the extension of the ductal tissues causing the constriction. The mechanical obstruction and activation of the RAAS result in hypertension. Diagnosis The difference in systolic BP between upper and lower extremities is the major clinical manifestation.
Patients who have chronic HTN and proteinuria before pregnancy may have worsening proteinuria or other features of preeclampsia during pregnancy. Chronic hypertension increases the risk of superimposed preeclampsia by 25%. This group has a worse outcome for mother and fetus than de-novo preeclampsia. Preeclampsia Preeclampsia is characterized by hypertension that occurs after the 20th week of pregnancy and new-onset proteinuria of more than 300 mg/24 hours, >30 mg/dl, or >1+ reading on a dipstick without concomitant urinary tract infection or existing renal disease.