By Ben Albahari, Joseph Albahari
What everyone is asserting approximately C# 4.0 in a Nutshell
"C# 4.0 in a Nutshell is likely one of the few books I carry on my table as a brief reference. it's a publication I recommend." --Scott Guthrie, company vp, .NET Developer Platform, Microsoft company
"A must-read for a concise yet thorough exam of the parallel programming beneficial properties within the .NET Framework 4." --Stephen Toub, Parallel Computing Platform application supervisor, Microsoft
"This magnificent publication is a smart reference for builders of all levels." -- Chris Burrows, C# Compiler workforce, Microsoft
if you have questions on tips on how to use C# 4.0 or the .NET CLR, this hugely acclaimed bestseller has exactly the solutions you would like. Uniquely geared up round suggestions and use instances, this fourth version comprises in-depth assurance of recent C# themes reminiscent of parallel programming, code contracts, dynamic programming, safeguard, and COM interoperability. You'll additionally locate up-to-date details on LINQ, together with examples that paintings with either LINQ to SQL and Entity Framework. This booklet has the entire crucial info to maintain you heading in the right direction with C# 4.0. * wake up to hurry on C# language fundamentals, together with syntax, varieties, and variables
* discover complex subject matters comparable to damaging code and preprocessor directives
* research C# 4.0 good points akin to dynamic binding, sort parameter variance, and non-compulsory and named parameters
* paintings with .NET 4's wealthy set of gains for parallel programming, code contracts, and the code protection model
* study .NET issues, together with XML, collections, I/O and networking, reminiscence administration, mirrored image, attributes, defense, and local interoperability
Read or Download C# 4.0 in a Nutshell: The Definitive Reference PDF
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Extra info for C# 4.0 in a Nutshell: The Definitive Reference
An operator takes one or more input operands to output a new expression. Here is an example of a constant expression: 12 We can use the * operator to combine two operands (the literal expressions 12 and 30), as follows: 12 * 30 Complex expressions can be built because an operand may itself be an expression, such as the operand (12 * 30) in the following example: 1 + (12 * 30) 44 | Chapter 2: C# Language Basics Operators in C# are classed as unary, binary, or ternary—depending on the number of operands they work on (one, two, or three).
WriteLine (x); } // x is 0 // Mutate y // x is 1 } The params modifier The params parameter modifier may be specified on the last parameter of a method so that the method accepts any number of parameters of a particular type. The parameter type must be declared as an array. WriteLine (total); } // 10 } You can also supply a params argument as an ordinary array. 0, methods, constructors, and indexers (Chapter 3) can declare optional parameters. WriteLine (x); } Optional parameters may be omitted when calling the method: Foo(); // 23 The default argument of 23 is actually passed to the optional parameter x—the compiler bakes the value 23 into the compiled code at the calling side.
A char literal is specified inside single quotes: char c = 'A'; // Simple character Escape sequences express characters that cannot be expressed or interpreted literally. An escape sequence is a backslash followed by a character with a special meaning. For example: char newLine = '\n'; char backSlash = '\\'; The escape sequence characters are shown in Table 2-2. Table 2-2. Escape sequence characters Char Meaning Value \' Single quote 0x0027 \" Double quote 0x0022 \\ Backslash 0x005C \0 Null 0x0000 \a Alert 0x0007 \b Backspace 0x0008 \f Form feed 0x000C \n New line 0x000A \r Carriage return 0x000D \t Horizontal tab 0x0009 \v Vertical tab 0x000B The \u (or \x) escape sequence lets you specify any Unicode character via its fourdigit hexadecimal code: char copyrightSymbol = '\u00A9'; char omegaSymbol = '\u03A9'; char newLine = '\u000A'; Char Conversions An implicit conversion from a char to a numeric type works for the numeric types that can accommodate an unsigned short.