Download Byzantium and Its Army, 284-1081 by Warren Treadgold PDF

By Warren Treadgold

The Byzantine Empire used to be commonly able to struggle, and sometimes fought for its lifestyles. in the course of a lot of its heritage its provinces have been army districts known as topics, and acclamation by way of the military, now not coronation or inheritance, used to be what made a guy emperor. the military overthrew twenty-odd rulers, and attempted to oust many extra. It used to be huge and expansive yet in general it served its objective good. Over 8 centuries, regardless of wasting a shocking variety of battles, the military succeeded in retaining either itself and Byzantium. In view of its significance in Byzantine background, it truly is outstanding that this quantity is the 1st normal booklet at the Byzantine military in any language.The writer lines the army’s effect at the Byzantine kingdom and society from the army’s reorganization less than Diocletian (284-305) till its disintegration within the aftermath of the conflict of Manzikert (1071). He indicates options to a few significant unresolved questions of Byzantine army heritage: how significant was once the military, how used to be it geared up, how a lot of it used to be cavalry, how a lot was once it paid, how used to be it provided, while and why did it obtain land promises within the issues, and why, after surviving such a lot of failures, did it fail to outlive the now not fairly disastrous 11th century?

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Why might one soldier refuse an order to kill? Why might another soldier RESOLVING IDENTITY TENSIONS 35 use excessive force during a peacekeeping mission? We cannot explain these behaviors merely by attributing them to a conflict between the soldier's professional and religious identities—after all, there are many Christian soldiers who do not experience cognitive inconsistencies that threaten their self-conception. The answer in each case will depend on how the individual experiences the situation and which central life interests become potent in that context.

Their social identities are interconnected with their other central life interests, the potency of which is directly influenced by the unique alignment of identities, values, beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors. Predicting how individuals will act in a situation when central life interests clash requires understanding the mosaic of cognitive, affective, and behavioral motives that shape their self-conception. In Chapter 3, I extend the network of central life interests to the realm of professional military education and suggest ways in which the dynamic identity model could serve to understand, diminish, and potentially help resolve cognitive inconsistencies.

From the nineteenth through the first half of the twentieth century, public support was closely linked with patriotism and nationalism and, therefore, was quite high. Throughout the twentieth century, the Army never saw its mission or purpose independent of the country's. In fact, it has been described as "the most loyal servant and progeny of this nation, of its institutions and people" (Builder 1989, p. 20). S. forces continue to be charged with peace operations, justifying the military's purpose solely in terms of fighting and winning the nation's wars will become increasingly difficult.

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