Download Biology of Spiders by Rainer Foelix PDF

By Rainer Foelix

Книга будет полезна для всех тех, кто интересуется или занимается пауками.
This e-book contains the most recent examine whereas dispelling many oft-heard myths and misconceptions that encompass spiders. Of distinctive curiosity are chapters at the constitution and serve as of spider webs and silk, in addition to these on spider venom. a brand new subchapter on tarantulas will allure particularly to tarantula keepers and breeders.
The hugely available textual content is supplemented by means of unheard of, high quality pictures, lots of them originals, and particular diagrams. it will likely be of curiosity to arachnologists, entomologists, and zoologists, in addition to to lecturers, scholars of biology, and the overall reader fascinated with spiders.

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They use their venom offensively to paralyze or to kill their prey). The quick immobilization is certainly the primary function of the venom—the lethal effect is only secondary (Friedel, 1987; Friedel and Nentwig, 1989). All spiders except for the uloborids, and the small holarchaeids possess a pair of venom glands, usually located in the prosoma (figs. 4). 2 Remnants of a blowfly after a garden spider (Araneus diadematus) had been feeding on it. Only few cuticular pieces such as some bristles or the corneal lenses of the compound eye can still be identified.

The large venom glands (VG) extend far into the carapace. Chel = chelicera, Clyp = clypeus, SEG = supraesophageal ganglion. 100x. (b) A strong muscle layer (M) surrounds the body of the venom gland. 200x. (c) The wall of the venom gland in longitudinal section: the muscle layer (M) is connected via a basal membrane (BM) to the glandular cells (G). Secretory droplets (S) containing venom accumulate toward the lumen of the gland. 2,800 x. ancient Mesothelae lack venom glands (Haupt, 2003), has recently been refuted (Foelix and Erb, 2010).

A typical example is the tergal apodeme (fig. 23), which projects from the thoracic groove of the carapace into the prosoma and provides the attachment site for the dorsal muscles of the sucking stomach. Other less conspicuous indentations are the sigillae, small patches of cuticle with a scaly appearance (fig. 33). Their serial arrangement on the opisthosoma (see fig. 7) indicates that they are also insertion points for muscles. Besides this ectodermal endoskeleton, spiders also have mesodermal skeletal elements, called entosterna.

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