By Friedrich Ruttner
Honeybees are as small as flies or as huge as hornets, nesting in nar row cavities of bushes and rocks or within the open on huge limbs of bushes 30 m above floor. They take place in tropical zones and within the forests of the Ural mountains, they continue to exist seven months of wintry weather or even longer classes of drought and warmth. traditionally, they lived via a prolonged time of stagnation within the tropics from the mid-Tertiary, yet then skilled an explosive evolution through the Pleistocene, re sulting within the conquest of massive new territories and the starting place of 2 dozen subspecies in Apis mellifera. This tremendous geographic and ecologic diversification of the genus Apis used to be observed by means of a wealthy morphological edition, much less at the point of species than on the lowest rank, the subspecies point. version being solely of a quantitative type at this primary step of speciation, tradi tional descriptive tools of systematics proved to be unsatisfactory, and honeybee taxonomy eventually ended up in a complicated multitude of inadequately defined devices. potent equipment of morphometric-sta tistical research of honeybee popUlations, situated on constrained components, were built over the last a long time. merely the numerical characterization of the populations, including the outline of habit, exhibits the genuine geographic variability and should finish present generalizations and handy stereotypes.
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Extra info for Biogeography and Taxonomy of Honeybees
1982). Therefore, the question of the evolution of honeybees will be investigated from all available data on paleontology, historic and morphometric taxonomy and ecology which were considered essential in the study of the general evolution of Apidae. y. old). They were named Synapis henshawi by Cockerell (1907), later classified as subgenus (one species with three subspecies) of Apis by Zeuner et al. (1976). y. ago) are the fossil bees of the Randecker Maar and of B6ttingen (SW Germany), both classified as Apis armbrusteri with several subspecies (Zeuner et al.
Melli/era; the cubital index (CI) reflects in one figure the whole apical part of the fore wing venation pattern. In the special chapters the definition and discrimination of races will be based on primary data, the description, however, partly on secondary values. 47). A number of measurements were used in honeybee morphometrics besides 42 those described in Chapter 6: width of head and thorax (Goetze 1930), interocellar and oculo-ocellar distance (Fig. 1982), density of spines on the wing surface (Woyke 1976), length of venom and rectal glands (Firsow 1976).
Y. ago) when A. armbrusteri occurred, the climate was cooler, but still humid and warm (temperate or subtropical). , indicates an annual mean temperature of 16°C, mean January temperature of 7-8°C and annual rainfall of 1500 mm. Similar vegetation today is found in Florida, .... E Brazil, and S China. The reconstructed tropic of this period passed through Europe just north of the Alps. Under these conditions a honeybee species with the same habits as A. dorsata (free nesting with a single comb) could have existed.