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By Mario D. Lamberte, Robert C. Vogel, Roger Thomas Moyes

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Sustainability of Credit Guarantee Systems. 1997. The Financier: Analyses of Capital and Money Market Transactions. February/May. Kilby, Peter, Carl E. Liedholm, and Richard L. Meyer. 1984. Working Capital and Nonfarm Rural Enterprises. In Undermining Rural Development with Cheap Credit. McKinnon, Ronald I. 1973. Money and Capital in Economic Development. , and Geetha Nagarajan. 2000. Rural Financial Markets in Asia: Policies, Paradigms, and Performance. Asian Development Bank. Chapter 1 From Agricultural Credit to Rural Finance: In Search of a New Paradigm Riera, Felix, and Jorge Molina.

37 Because the potential volume of business in a small town or village may be quite limited, a bank branch there must have low operating costs to be profitable. However, many countries have created costly regulatory barriers to opening small bank branches in rural areas, albeit inadvertently, through requirements for expensive security systems, standardized hours of operations, and the provision of accounting data to the head office either online or on a daily basis. Such requirements, among others, can make the establishment of small rural bank branches prohibitively expensive.

Inflation Rate (%) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 0 Note: Change in Consumer Price Index. Sources: ADB Key Indicators 2004; EBRD Transition Update, April 2001; various country diagnostic studies. The six transition economies quickly recognized the costs of hyperinflation and addressed the problem by applying standard macroeconomic tools. More specifically, they trimmed budget deficits and tightened monetary policy. of Kazakhstan. A critical aftereffect of the collapse of the Soviet Union was that Kazakhstan remained in the ruble zone and therefore not able to control its own currency for 23 months following independence, as the tenge was not introduced until November 1993.

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