By Beregond, Anders Stenström
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Extra resources for Arda Philology 1
Elements within spatial uses Let us consider a bit more carefully the elements of verticality and the path. 1. Verticality Figure 7 shows that a relationship of strict verticality is not required between the principle landmark and the trajector. Down is, of course, an adequate description of points B, C, and D even though there is horizontal displacement with respect to A’s location. Figure 7. 2. 5 For instance, from where I live in Peru at 11000 ft. I may say I’m going down to Lima even though this requires first climbing to 16000 ft before dropping to sea level.
Within the domain of physical space, down commonly refers to a wide variety of configurations, some of which differ quite radically from what is embodied in the prototype. Furthermore, physical space is only one of numerous domains within which the concept down has instantiations. In the following section I examine occurrences of the Wanca Quechua directional suffix -lpu. The various senses parallel many of the same kinds of extensions observed for English above. 4. -lpu in Wanca Quechua There are five meanings associated with-lpu: 1) ‘downward motion of some object toward a point lower on a vertical axis’, 2) ‘termination of an action’, 3) ‘finally’, 4) ‘negative consequence’, and 5) ‘completely/totally’.
Totally What emerges, then, is a category structured something like that in Figure 16. The spatial directional sense serves as the prototype (indicated by the boldface box) from which other meanings are extended. The blank boxes indicate potential intermediate schemas owing to interpretational ambiguities observed between certain forms; these will be discussed briefly in the following section. Completion, comas and other “downers” 57 Figure 16. LPU 5. Ambiguities Some of the Wanca forms are ambiguous between competing interpretations: (30) wan˜u-lpudie-dwn ‘to finally die (i.