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By Peter Evans

Advances in Insect body structure is dedicated to publishing eclectic volumes containing finished and in-depth stories on all elements of insect body structure. First released in 1963, it truly is a vital reference resource for invertebrate physiologists and neurobiologists, entomologists, zoologists, and bug biochemists. In 1999, the Institute for clinical details published figures displaying that Advances in Insect body structure has an effect issue of 4.5, putting it moment within the hugely aggressive class of Entomology. Key gains * This quantity contains 5 stories at the following issues: * The Drosophila melanogaster Malpighian tubule * Plasticity within the insect anxious procedure * impartial amino acid absorption within the midgut of lepidopteran larvae * The unpaired median neurons of bugs * FMRFamide similar peptides: a multifunctional kin of structurally similar neuropeptides in bugs

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This invited speculation that chloride channels might be con®ned to stellate cells. 26 J. A. T. DOW AND S. A. DAVIES Powerful evidence to support this theory came from the use of vibrating probes (now renamed self-referencing electrodes, to spare blushes), that allow ion ¯ux to be inferred by measuring tiny perturbations in the electrical ®eld surrounding a tissue. Chloride current hotspots were con®ned to the main, ¯uid-secreting, portion of the tubule, and invariably mapped to stellate cells (Fig.

1998). Antiserum against leucokinin-1 was used to isolate pools of immunoreactive neurons from house¯y CNS, from which crude protein extracts were prepared. The myokinin-like extract markedly stimulated ¯uid secretion; this effect was mimicked by agents that raise intracellular Ca2‡ concentration. In order to de®ne the contribution of Ca2‡ -signalling processes to the maintenance of ¯uid transport by insect tubules, and to the action of speci®c neuropeptide hormones in vivo, it is necessary to obtain direct measurements of intracellular cytosolic Ca2‡ levels …‰Ca2‡ Ši †.

The myokinin-like extract markedly stimulated ¯uid secretion; this effect was mimicked by agents that raise intracellular Ca2‡ concentration. In order to de®ne the contribution of Ca2‡ -signalling processes to the maintenance of ¯uid transport by insect tubules, and to the action of speci®c neuropeptide hormones in vivo, it is necessary to obtain direct measurements of intracellular cytosolic Ca2‡ levels …‰Ca2‡ Ši †. The use of standard calciumbinding ¯uorescent dyes to measure ‰Ca2‡ Ši in insect tubules have always been dif®cult as these molecules are transported out of the tissue too quickly to enable any measurements to be made (J.

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