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God is neither an object nor a you; no human being can meet with God directly, but God has left a trace. Discussions in modal epis- temology have focused on the extent to which imagin- ability—and its cousin conceivability—can serve as guides to possibility. The birthdate of the Reformation is traditionally given as 1517, the year in which Martin Luther posted his Ninety-five Theses on the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg; the termination of the period may be assigned to the 1550s, by which time an ecclesiastical stalemate between the Protestants and the Roman Catholics appeared unavoidable.

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Liveright, 1928), and Wilhelm Reich, in The Mass Psychology of Fascism, translated by T. The Oxford Companion to American Literature. The content is provided by the senses, but the form is provided by reason. He leaned toward the latter as definitive of moral duty, but he recognized that one’s self-interest rightly carries a special weight, other things being equal. There are a number of familiar ways in which historians may be said to reduce the material of history to order and coherence, none of which involves the acceptance of all-embracing beliefs regarding the historical process as a whole of the type he instances.

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See also Atomic Theory in Indian Philosophy; Causation in Indian Philosophy; Liberation in Indian Philosophy; Logic, History of: Logic and Inference in Indian Philosophy; Meditation in Indian Philosophy; Mind and Mental States in Buddhist Philosophy; Philosophy of Language in India; Self in Indian Philosophy; Truth and Falsity in Indian Philosophy; Universal Properties in Indian Philosophical Traditions. The aforementioned identification of meaning with truth conditions is a primary example.

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However, Durandus’s reply to the pope’s theological opinion concerning the beatific vision (1333) was promptly submitted to a commission of theologians, who found eleven objectionable statements. Yet the Burkean belief in human fallibility, human blindness of passion, and in tradition-enshrined institutional dikes to restrain these anarchic thrusts (dikes not to be tampered with by the intellect), as well as belief in the folk, in an organic society not the product of planning, is surely also congruous with much of Romanticism.

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Levinson, Jerrold. “Defining Art Historically.” British Journal of Aesthetics 19 (1979): 232–250. Since the theories accounted for nothing other than the alleged orthogenetic trends, they have always had a peripheral position in the history of evolutionary thought. Man is at once continuous with the rest of nature and exhibits distinctive patterns of behavior that distinguish him from the rest of nature. It was developed in considerable detail ENCYCLOPEDIA OF PHILOSOPHY 2nd edition • 349 COMMON CONSENT ARGUMENTS FOR THE EXISTENCE OF GOD changed, the Buddhist creed could not hold its own and had to give way to modern Hinduism.

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Matters are further complicated by the times in which he lived. Joseph Addison’s Spectator papers on aesthetic enjoyment (1712, Nos. 409, 411–421) conceived taste as simply the capacity to discern those three qualities that give rise to “the pleasures of the imagination,” greatness (that is, sublimity), uncommonness (novelty), and beauty. The point of departure of Comte’s philosophy is his law of the three stages. So, there is no one thing that has incompatible properties—indeed that is how perdurantism avoids contradiction.

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Key to understanding this African metaphysic was a concept of time that consisted of an endless past (the Zamani), a living present (the Sasa), and a truncated future that returned to the past. The book set off a stormy debate with Steven Jay Gould and others in the New York Review of Books in 1997. Forgetting that p is just as factive as being surprised or embarrassed that p, but if you forget or are unaware that p, then it does not follow that you know that p.

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It is clear that nothing that we could observe would provide such knowledge. Reich referred to the totality of these chronic muscular rigidities that an individual develops as the “muscular armor.” Reich emphasized that it is muscle groups rather than individual muscles that become spastic—muscle groups which jointly serve a certain function, for example, to suppress the impulse to cry. The moral virtue in a per- son consists in grasping one’s primary nature and con- trolling one’s secondary nature.

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It could also be a personal pronoun (“I” or “we”) or a definite description (“the father of the Reformation”). The prewar period was exceptionally rich in journals which emphasized theology or the philosophy of religion: 1900–1939. They are constituents of everything, he claimed, since the fact that there is a continuity of forms in nature gives assurance that, at least to some degree, any entity in nature possesses the same qualities that all others have. III: The Will to Power as Knowledge and as Metaphysics.

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It is this law that explains how one gets determinate measurement records at the end of an observation and makes the standard statistical predictions. A person in this last category is surely an agnostic. One could say that the person is healthy now even though the gene is one that will cause a disease later in life. However, Cheng Yi’s older brother Cheng Hao, their uncle Zhang Zai, and Shao Yong, who with Cheng Yi and Zhou Dunyi are called the Five Masters of early Song Neo-Confucianism, also contributed substantially to it.

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