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This procedure, or schema, clearly foreshadowed the later programs of operationalism and the verifiability theory of meaning. Kuhn’s studies of normal science, revolution, and scientific debate are supposed to show that exponents of rival paradigms apply the aforementioned epistemic values in very different ways, yielding concretely different standards of explanation, simplicity, unification, and even accuracy (what counts as an acceptable measure of experimental deviation of prediction from observed result).

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These remarks, however, are not all that obvious and must be taken with a grain of salt. Dretske, Fred. “Epistemic Operators.” Journal of Philosophy 67 (1970): 1007–1023. From the perception of the outside world comes reflection, and from reflection on the internal world comes will. The article “Deus,” however, begins by saying flatly that Aristotle was right in calling God the prime mover but was wrong in denying God’s creation of the world, God’s omniscience, and so on. 1658—Johann Adam Scherzer (Schertzer) and others.

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He exposes the defects of a one-sided technological development that improves machines and mechanisms but that leaves man’s nature untouched and vulnerable, entirely at the mercy of the vagaries of the external environment. Bridges, Frederic Harrison, et al. as The System of Positive Polity, 4 vols. (London: Longmans, 1875–1877); Catéchisme positiviste (1852), translated by Richard Congreve as The Catechism of Positive Religion (London: John Chapman, 1858); Appel aux conservateurs (1855); and La synthèse subjective (1856).

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It draws on scholars working in the fields of political ecology, rural sociology, geography, and environmental studies to paint a picture of the past, present, and future of agriculture and food. The writing is scholarly and therefore sometimes difficult to understand in a subject area with which you're unfamiliar. A third factor in trends of value is survival, which is best assured if the object serving it coincides with it. Second, and correlatively, they did not stress God’s care for persons individually, nor, as a consequence, did they allow that God accomplishes his purpose in and through the free response of human wills to his initiative.

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For mathematical purposes Ramsey assumed extension- ality; on this assumption, propositional functions of a single argument amount to sets, those of more than one to relations-in-extension. When this controversy reached a critical stage in 1328, and it became evident that John XXII was about to issue an official condemnation of the position held by the Franciscans, Cesena and Ockham, along with two other leaders of the Franciscan opposi- tion, fled from Avignon and sought the protection of Emperor Louis of Bavaria, who had repudiated the authority of the Avignon papacy in connection with the issue of succession to the imperial crown.

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An anthology, from the Old Testament and Herodotus to the present. Subse- quent propositions emphasize the higher human func- tions of cognition and volition, and they distinguish sensitive knowledge of individual bodies and their quali- ties from intellectual understanding of the universal fea- tures of reality. Thus, while logic (analytic reason) seeks to establish categorical distinctions between self and other, nature and society, reason and unreason, philosophical reasoning about logic undermines these distinctions.

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Stephen was not a considerable innovator, in philos- ophy, in historical method, or in literary criticism. Findlay, Meinong’s Theory of Objects and Values (2nd ed., Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1963); G. People refer to social persons, moral persons, metaphysical persons, legal persons, religious persons, and so on. Figure 1 is governed by what is called the dictum de omni et nullo, the principle that what applies to all or none of the objects in a given class will apply or not apply (as the case may be) to any given member or subclass of this class.

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Moser, Paul K. “Epistemology (1900–Present).” In Routledge History of Philosophy, Vol. 10: Philosophy of the English Speaking World in the 20th Century, edited by John Canfield. In psychology and epistemology, Sylvester taught a theory of intellectual abstraction by compresence in which the actual object of understanding is quite different from the intelligible determinant that is impressed on the possible intellect (species impressa is not the intelligibile). The Jansenists and the Expulsion of the Jesuits from France, 1757–1765.

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Ehricke Visionary German-American engineer. Dutch translation, Nijmegen: Van Hervelt, 1658. The ritualistic interpretation of theological discourse can best be introduced RITUALISTIC INTERPRETATION. by citing the reply of an intellectually sophisticated highchurch Anglican to a question from an agnostic friend. By showing how these ensembles and the features of them vary as constraints on the system are varied, Gibbs was able to show “analogies” between features of the ensembles and averages of features calculated with their probability distributions and standard thermodynamic quantities such as temperature and entropy.

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The idea of God, as the idea of an infinite being possessing all the perfections that God is supposed to possess, has more objective reality than the idea of a finite substance does. There are at least three sources of Hobbes’s individualism. D’Ailly’s literary output was vast and wide-ranging. The Bakhtin Circle: In the Master’s Absence. Hegel and whose outstanding British exponent was F. Gerard is clearly committed to what he understands as a “scientific”—that is, New- tonian—model, but at bottom he is siding with Reid against Hume by holding that aesthetic properties must be really in the object and that principles of common sense are sufficient to provide standards of judgment when disagreement arises.

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